Group 2 Markets: France, Italy, Spain, Russia
Like Group 1 markets, these tend to be wealthier and more developed markets that loosely resemble Group 1 markets from a macroeconomic perspective, but there are some notable subdivides within these markets that serve to intensify some of the same representativeness gaps that exist within Group 1 markets.
France, Italy and Spain are each countries with elderly populations that are proportionately larger than the elderly populations of the United States and most other Group 1 markets, which means that underrepresentation of the elderly population has a relatively high impact on the representativeness of online samples collected within these markets.
Each of these markets also has a de facto dividing line in terms of the prosperity of the people and level of economic development present in different areas within the country. In the case of France, this is a metropolitan and rural/agrarian dividing line. In Italy and Spain, it’s a regional dividing line, as the economic development and prosperity of the residents of southern regions are below that of the central and northern regions. Russia also has a regional dividing line and enormous expanse of territory, such that the areas closer to Moscow and within Central or Eastern Europe tend to be more economically developed, while the vast eastern territories within continental Asia are less densely populated, and less likely to be inhabited by people who are equipped to participate in online survey activities.